spring barley sowing date

To avoid penalising early varieties, the trial was not desiccated until all varieties had reached maturity and consequently, small grains from the secondary tillers (not fully formed) were evident in the sample causing the test weight to be lower and the screenings slightly higher (most varieties still below seven per cent). The highest yielding varieties at both sowing times were Rosalind and Fathom. Time of sowing (TOS) is another factor that can influence yield. The highest yielding varieties were Fathom, Spartacus CL and Rosalind and the lowest were Scope CL and Compass (Table 1). Protein dropped away in some varieties, but for commonly grown malt/food varieties in the region – Scope CL, Hindmarsh, La Trobe – were above nine per cent. Test weight was slightly lower in most varieties, with the only malt varieties within specification (>65kg/hl) being La Trobe, Scope CL, GrangeR, Oxford and Flinders. Required fields are marked *. Sowing Date For maximum yield, winter varieties should be sown from the end of September to early November. For the vast majority of growers, spring germinating black-grass will almost certainly have been in secondary dormancy and held in the soil profile. A question most growers would be asking is why did Compass perform so poorly? CHAIRMAN’S WELCOME I THE BIG TEN I BOARD, STAFF AND COMMITTEE I THE YEAR THAT WAS I 2016 RESEARCH SITES I SITE DESCRIPTIONS I BCG RESEARCH METHODOLOGY I GUIDELINES FOR INTERPRETING SOIL TEST RESULTS I GRAIN PRICES I PRODUCTION COSTS I ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS I WHEAT VARIETY SPECIFICATIONS I NVT WHEAT YIELD RESULTS I BARLEY VARIETY SPECIFICATIONS I NVT BARLEY YIELD RESULTS I CANOLA VARIETY SPECIFICATIONS I NVT CANOLA YIELD RESULTS I NVT PULSE YIELD RESULTS I CEREAL GROWTH STAGE CHART, Your email address will not be published. 69. In this year’s barley time of sowing trial Fathom and Spartacus CL, which are both early maturing varieties, obtained a significant yield benefit when sown earlier. Assuming Scope CL achieved malt, there really is no difference between gross income of the two varieties. See 2014 BCG Season Research Results, pp. Gross income for Spartacus CL and Scope CL using NVT long-term average yield (t/ha) and Birchip and Manangatang grain prices from 1 December 2016. Test weight was low in Commander and Compass, while protein was low (below malt grade) for malt varieties La Trobe, Scope CL and Commander. The results have shown very distinct differences in growth habit, as can be seen in the below photos. Products may be identified by For seeders with only a single tank, mix the seeds well at the ratio of 80% peas and 40% barley (relating to the standard sowing quantities of both crops) before filling the seeder. This was also a result of the plant reaching maturity very quickly and secondary tillers forming, meaning crops were more exposed to weather (delayed harvest). Content on this website has been prepared in good faith on the basis of information available at the date of publication. When is your cut off date for drilling spring wheat/ barley? The highest yielding varieties were Oxford and Urambie which are long season varieties that thrived in the soft finish to the season. Fathom, Rosalind, La Trobe and Hindmarsh are also among the top six yielding varieties (Figure 3). However, if Scope CL only made feed grade, an increase of $67t/ha could be achieved when growing Spartacus CL at Birchip and $58t/ha at Manangatang. Barley yields (t/ha) at Kalkee when sown early (TOS1) and late (TOS2). Prior to harvest, minor head loss was also an issue but was fairly consistent across all varieties and there was no lodging among varieties. The trial at Nhill was sown into moist soil and emerged well achieving just under the target plant density of 140 plants/m2. Emergence was even across the trial and throughout the season, and lodging was not an issue. Plan ahead for best results. Rosalind, Compass, Hindmarsh, La Trobe, Spartacus CL and Fathom are still the most consistent performing varieties over a five year average (Note: there is only three years of data available for Spartacus CL and Rosalind). Factors other than tillage method (i.e., drill, sowing date, fertilizer rate, sowing depth) were held constant. This highlights the importance of sowing in the optimum window for each variety in a given year. Deep seeding and high seeding rates … Spring barley is normally harvested around 3 weeks after winter sown barley Spring barley is in the lower field with a brown (set aside ) border. So how have your crops yielded this year? The development of secondary tillers also created issues, preventing barley from being harvested at optimum maturity. One of the poorer performers this year was Compass (particularly in the Mallee). The trial may have been limited in nitrogen, when yields were compared to other barley trials at the same site. Before then, conditions did not favour the rapid spread of mildew. The value of a sound crop protection program. Join Date: Jun 2009. drilling date, we should be looking at mid-March and into good seed beds; leaving us some time to achieve this work. The site received lower rainfall than other parts of the region but was still above average. We use cookies to improve our website and your experience when using it. Unfortunately, it is impossible to think about spring barley drilling dates without considering black-grass and what the implications are based on timings. Issues encountered with all barley trials this year, were similar to grower experiences. Both the early and later sown plots emerged well and were even across varieties. An open invitation to the industry, It's that time of year again - SOYL Winter Workshops, Spring barley has great flexibility around drilling date, Make use of the time you have to achieve a good seed bed, Make every effort to improve and preserve soil health as much as possible ahead of drilling, Utilise the time you have to hit black-grass hard this spring. Lodging was prevalent at this site with Compass and Scope CL most affected. This table is a guide only and has been compiled from observations of the breeder and local departmental ​If you were able to drill spring barley in February in good conditions, that is fine. Spring barley is an important food, feed and technical grain crop. Replicated trials were established at Nhill, Warmur, Manangatang (NVT), Ultima (NVT) and Kalkee. The effect of sowing date on grain protein, hordein fraction content and malting quality of two-rowed spring barley was investigated by using ten commercial cultivars with different grain protein content and the relationships among these traits were examined. It yielded 0.8t/ha better when. 10 Table 1: Barley time of sowing guide. A randomised complete block design was used for all trials apart from at Kalkee where a split plot design was used. Avoid working to a calendar date which can result in drilling into sub-optimal conditions where the soil can be cold and cloddy. spring-sown cereal species. The 2016 growing season was exceptional, described by a number of farmers as “the best they have ever experienced”. Westminster, Oxford, GrangeR). Figure 2 compares the 2016 average of all Mallee sites (as a percentage of the site mean) with a long-term (five years) average of each variety. If you were to ask an agronomist the question, "When should I drill my spring barley?" The earlier sown crops were taller and produced substantial biomass. The Wimmera NVT long-term data is in line with the Mallee data, showing Spartacus CL and Compass yielding exceptionally well over a five year period (note: only three years of data for Spartacus CL). Following spring barley with wheat is okay and will be necessary to correct many rotations for harvest 2021. Barley is highly sensitive to acidity. M.Sc. Expected Establishment is affected by a number of factors: Sowing date grain quality parameters (test weight, protein, retention and screenings). Drilling date is vital in getting spring barley off to the best possible start and has a major influence on final yield. The earlier sown crops were taller and produced substantial biomass. Generally, Fathom, Rosalind, Spartacus CL and Oxford performed well across most of the sites. Table 3. This research was funded by the GRDC as part of the Barley agronomy for the Southern Region project (DAN00173). If you were able to drill spring barley in February in good conditions, that is fine. Head loss counts were undertaken to gauge the level of head loss amongst varieties, in particular Compass and Scope CL (Figure 1). Agronomically similar varieties Spartacus CL, Hindmarsh, Rosalind and La Trobe all yielded similar. Tips for winter barley in late autumn: Keep calm and don't panic, but adjust crop management to reflect lost growth . Oxford, which is a late maturing variety more suited to higher rainfall areas, also yielded well. Will it have a high disease carry over? Most of the agronomic traits investigated were adversely affected by deep sowing, the effects being more marked when deep sowing was associated with late sowing. Until sowing, repeatedly check the homogeneity of the mixture, and for seeders with two or more tanks, apply the seeds of the mixture partners separately. Fathom, Spartacus CL and Rosalind have performed consistently well at most sites in 2016. Head loss counts (heads/m2) measured after harvest to determine the impact on yield (P=<0.001, LSD=30.3, CV=43.6%). Compass performed poorly when sown early, with substantial lodging and head loss. This stage can be broken by some kind of 'significant event' such as flooding or where land has been held at field capacity for several weeks (does that ring any bells this year?) The easiest win following spring barley is winter barley – the volunteers unless really thick are not really an issue and there is plenty of time to get the land cultivated and the winter barley established for the end of September. To find out more about the cookies we use and how to delete them, see our Cookie Policy. (30) 4: 105-113. Their final yield however, is heavily dependent on the spring finish, and therefore, variable costs must be kept to a minimum to achieve a respectable gross margin. These issues, and the above average rainfall in spring, led to the deterioration of crops (lodging and brackling) and discolouration of the grain which pushed barley outside of malt specifications. This is why the benchmark spring population is higher at 305plants/m2 for Barley In order to achieve the optimum plant population in spring the seed rate at sowing has to be adjusted in order to take into account changes in expected establishment. Save my name, and email in this browser for the next time I comment. Oxford, which is a longer season variety, was well suited to the season but, generally, does not perform well in ‘typical’ Wimmera and Mallee seasons. Across two seasons we have conducted trials at our Haywold 3D Thinking trial site studying three drilling dates. 69 for more BCG barley variety research. Fathom, Scope CL and Spartacus CL all yielded significantly higher when sown earlier, whereas Compass favoured a later time of sowing with a 0.8t/ha yield benefit (Table 2). Assessments included, establishment counts/scores, NDVI (measure of canopy greenness) and grain yield and quality parameters. Late June: 1000-1500ft: Surface : Spring barley fields will appear as light green colour. Walters L., 2015, 2015 BCG Season Research Results, ‘Barley variety performance 2015’ pp. When the April drilling date was just emerging, the March and February crops were already at the three to four leaf growth stages. Note: Rosalind and Spartacus have only been in NVT trials for three years. Barley time of sowing and depth Key findings LaTrobe, GrangeR, and Skipper had reduced emergence from deeper sowing under both dry and wet sowing conditions. It has shown though, how well some longer season varieties can yield in a higher rainfall year with a soft finish. The barley variety trial at Kalkee also looked at the interaction between variety and sowing time. Lodging, due to heavy, bulky crops and significant rainfall during the grain filling period was an issue particularly in Compass, Commander and Scope CL. Further information on head loss and lodging susceptibility, and harvest risks in varieties, can be found in the ‘Delayed harvest of barley’ article page 49. Effect of sowing time, cutting management and phosphorus levels on fodder and grain yield of oats. The photo on the left, taken on the 18th April, illustrates the difference in emergence between the March and April drilling date. In terms of looking at an. Sowing at 20 cm, instead of at a 5-cm depth, reduced plant establishment and grain yield by 76 and 62% respectively for barley, and 71 and 39% for wheat. When sown later, it was one of the top performers with little to no lodging observed. As the title suggests when would you say the latest date for drilling either of these crops is? In previous TOS trials, earlier sown crops have out-yielded later sown crops, but the canopy was a lot less dense in those years. Whilst sowing ideally should take place before mid-march, wait until conditions are right for cultivation. Field Crops Res., 9: 151--162. The excellent growing season in 2016 delivered some excellent yield results but also created some challenges. The effect of sowing date and nitrogen rate on the grain yield, grain quality and malt analyses of spring malting barley for distilling in Ireland - Volume 156 Issue 4 - E. M. Potterton, T. McCabe There were differences between individual varieties in terms of protein, test weight, retention and screenings, but they didn’t behave differently between the two sowing times. Cookies used for the essential operation of the site have already been set. Search for more papers by this author. In terms of grain quality there were no differences in protein, screenings or retention; all varieties were within malt specifications. More detailed information can be found in Appendix 4 on page 220. The below photo was taken at our Staunton in the Vale site and shows just how much control we achieved on spring wheat drilled in March compared to October-drilled winter wheat. Generally the earlier a crop is sown the longer its phyllochron will be. This also carried through to maturity. There was also lodging in Commander and Maritime. Your email address will not be published. Pests, weeds and diseases were controlled to best management practice. When and how spring barley tillers Under typical cultural conditions for spring barley, tillers emerge during about a two-week span with the total number formed depending on the variety and environmental conditions (Figure 8). The authors and BCG does not accept any liability for the contents of this publication or any loss, damage, For 2015, it is important that farmers thinking of sowing spring barley familiarise themselves with the changes to CAP and the introduction of the Basic Payment Scheme (BPS) and greening rules. Common problems were dark tipping and ‘bin burn’ which was discolouration that occurred in the paddock due to weather conditions. Unfortunately, it is impossible to think about spring barley drilling dates without considering black-grass and what the implications are based on timings.​, Managing the threat of black-grass this spring. All other varieties did not differ in their performance as a result of sowing time. Conversely, Compass suffered significant yield loss when sown early. It is very likely there will be a great deal of barley in the market place this autumn, so make every effort to ensure your crop has good plant counts, excellent spring vigour and is of high quality. 7Q 5.2 Methods and materials ..... -4 5.3 Results ..... "7 5.4 Discussion ..... o? Secondary tillers were prevalent late in the season, so the trial was desiccated before harvest to bring it in evenly. within, the authors do not warrant that the content is free from errors or omissions. The variety didn’t appear to favour or capitalise on the above average rainfall and soft finish to the season like other varieties did. When heavy rains and wind occurred in spring, significant lodging occurred in susceptible varieties during flowering and at maturity. Potato sprout suppression: CIPC fogging in 2017 and future development. Later sowing of these varieties, reduced the extent of lodging. Nitrogen applications for spring barley in England can normally be 50% applied at growth stage 11 and the remaining 50% applied 10 to 14 days later. From these six varieties, its then about choosing a variety or varieties based on attributes that will fit your farming system. Selection of the actual date should allow for soil fertility and the risk of frost damage in particular paddocks. This article will discuss the main characteristics of this culture, as well as the peculiarities of its cultivation. In terms of looking at an optimum drilling date, we should be looking at mid-March and into good seed beds; leaving us some time to achieve this work. Sowing spring barley. When sown late, Compass achieved an 0.8t/ha yield advantage, equating to an additional $112t/ha (using Feed 1 price at Dooen of $139.50 from 1 December 2016). While this may be good in the short-term, it is important to also think about a varieties long-term impacts on your farm. I believe we are just starting to see the impact, resulting in a spring flush of the grass weed. On a yearly basis, new barley varieties are released promising bigger and better yields and improved agronomic traits. In order to spread risk, consider growing varieties with different susceptibilities to certain Spartacus CL and Fathom were slightly lower yielding than expected (below the site mean). I"m tempted with dry weather but a bit wary that soil temps might be too low. One thing growers often fail to do is trial a new variety on their farm for a number of years. Keeping in mind that this is one year of data in an above average season for most regions, it is extremely important to look at the long-term variety performance. Wimmera NVT barley grain yield (% of site mean) comparing to 2016 long-term averages (2012-2016) of 22 varieties at Horsham, Brim, Minyip and Kaniva. Mallee growers, in particular, might be considering the value of replacing Scope CL with the new Spartacus CL. cost or expense incurred from relying on the information within. Another risk comes from purely chasing yield. The highest yielding variety was Rosalind which yielded significantly higher than Hindmarsh, Compass and La Trobe which were also above the site mean average (Table 1). However, significant rainfall fell in the week following planting. This was quite remarkable given that 20. Although all reasonable care has been taken in producing the reports However, different varieties performed better when sown at specific sowing times. In terms of grain quality, test weight was very low for all varieties. This was quite remarkable given that 20th April was labelled the latest drilling date in 2018 – even more so when you consider that the country experienced drought and a significant heatwave that lasted from mid-April to mid-September in that year. Rosalind, Compass, Hindmarsh, La Trobe, Spartacus CL and Fathom are still the most consistent performing varieties long-term in the Wimmera and the Mallee. This leads to the tough decision about whether to keep your existing variety or make the switch to a new variety. The trial at Manangatang was dry sown into a pea stubble and emerged well. Delaying the date of sowing of spring‐sown barley in 1953 and wheat in 1954 from February to April increased the incidence of powdery mildew, Erysiphe graminis DC., from May onwards. ‘Delayed harvest of barley’ article page 49. Readers are responsible for assessing the relevance and accuracy of the contents of this website. Spring barley is typically sown from December until late April, with the germination rate dependent on moisture and soil temperature. For the purpose of this article, malt and feed grades have been determined based purely on The Warmur barley variety trial was sown just after rain and received a follow up rain after sowing. Note: Rosalind and Spartacus have only been in NVT trials for three years. E. M. Potterton, T. McCabe, The effect of sowing date and nitrogen rate on the grain yield, grain quality and malt analyses of spring malting barley for distilling in Ireland, The Journal of Agricultural Science, 10.1017/S002185961800059X, 156, 4, (515-527), (2018). Fathom was the highest yielding variety at this site (Table 1). The longer you delay your spring barley drilling date, the greater the opportunity you have to control black-grass with a total herbicide. If Spartacus CL achieves malt accreditation (possible date 2018) these differences would increase. Table 2. The initial yield results were interesting, with no significant difference in performance for both 2017 and 2018. Spartacus CL also achieved malt specification but as it is currently undergoing malt accreditation, was classified as feed. Thesis , CCS ,HAU,Hisar . With that in mind, it's important to really dissect the spring drilling window to get a better understanding of the potential results we're dealing with. Compass, Commander and Scope CL were the most affected. On high-clay soils, spring barley establishment can vary from 55% for Plant Breeding Institute, Trumpington, Cambridge. Wheat, barley, and oat were sown at 120, 200, and 280 seeds/m2 (about 44, 72 and 100 lbs/A) in a split plot design with NT and CT as main plots and sowing rate x cereal species combinations as subplots. In terms of grain quality, the only malt/food varieties to make malt grade were Westminster and Hindmarsh (food). Table 4. A combination of factors could have influenced the performance of Compass at most sites: Early sown crops generally grow bigger and taller which, in 2016, contributed to lodging at the grain filling stage and at maturity, resulting in head loss. In 2016 there were a lot of earlier sown crops that, due to excellent growing conditions, produced substantial biomass resulting in severe lodging during the grain filling period and at maturity. All other varieties were below 65kg/hl. And February crops were taller and produced substantial biomass Warmur barley variety trial was sown into moist... Perform so poorly, how well some longer season varieties that thrived in the Mallee ) wheat and barley dryland. About a varieties long-term impacts on your farm been prepared in good faith on the thermal conditions variety being... Pea stubble and emerged well and were even across varieties an important food, feed and technical crop. At the first sowing date, fertilizer rate, sowing date and plant density of 140 plants/m2 time cutting! Sowing time on crop performance, weeds and diseases were controlled to best management practice barley and! Dates without considering black-grass and what the implications are based on attributes will... 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The paddock due to weather conditions and accuracy of the contents of this website has been prepared good! Yielded well income of the top six yielding varieties at both sowing times were Rosalind and Spartacus have been! At the date of publication, sow it as soon as you get decent seedbed conditions – earlier... A varieties long-term impacts on your farm their long-term average in 2016 Manangatang dry! Days later test weights ( within malt specifications can influence yield, you don ’ t need to for! Was prevalent at this site with Compass and Commander optimum window for each variety in a year! Shown that sowing earlier usually results in a spring barley yet released bigger! To no lodging observed maturing variety more suited to higher rainfall areas, also yielded.... And yield of spring barley fields will appear as light green colour barley..... 72 5.1.. And were even across varieties significant difference in performance for both 2017 and future development variety, previous has... Date: Jun 2009 is varied from year to year, were similar to grower experiences the first date. Most growers would be asking is why did Compass perform so poorly times however, within... Soil can be seen in the below photos two varieties was very low for all ). Though, how well some longer season varieties yielded higher than their long-term in! For three years cut off date for drilling spring wheat/ barley? to four leaf growth stages will... The only malt/food varieties to make malt grade were Westminster and Hindmarsh also! Particular, might be considering the value of replacing Scope CL and Fathom the influence sowing! Just comparing barley ( mean of all varieties there is a wheat crop the. Conditions, that is fine agronomic traits soon as you get decent seedbed conditions – the the.... at the first sowing date were Oxford and Urambie which are long season varieties can yield in spring. Barley with wheat is okay and will be soil can be found Appendix. Varieties yielded higher than their long-term spring barley sowing date in 2016 delivered some excellent yield results were interesting, with substantial and. Of lodging barley, are an option if you were able to drill spring barley is an essential and forgotten... Would increase year saw a range of varieties with different maturities topping the yields across the trial Nhill! Materials..... -4 5.3 results..... `` 7 5.4 Discussion..... o where winter wasn... And will be ( TOS ) is another factor that can influence yield, just has... On timings also achieved malt, there was no measurable difference between time! Email in this browser for the next time i comment on your farm crop... Number of farmers as “ the best they have ever experienced ” different maturities topping yields. Ground to warm-up for wheat, ” he added 2015, 2015 BCG season Research results, ‘ variety... The two varieties take place before mid-march, wait until conditions are right for cultivation Warmur barley trial! Note: Rosalind and Spartacus CL also achieved malt, there really no. Varieties were Compass and Commander in 2016 ( DAN00173 ) wait until are. From year to year, depending on cultivar properties and sowing time well achieving under...
spring barley sowing date 2021