Strategies that foster curriculum implementation, Preparing teachers to design sequences of instruction in earth systems science: A comparison of three professional development programs. These 3 years were buoyed by the instructional coaching infrastructure developed by the district superintendent, where the coaches were specifically tasked with supporting curriculum implementation. While the expectation for teachers generally was to implement the curriculum provided to them so that students can benefit from the exposure to common instructional language and pedagogy across classrooms and schools (principal interview, Orrington), educational leaders in Palisades, Maple Town, and to some extent, Orrington struggled with building their teachers’ capacities to deviate from the curriculum to adapt to students’ needs. The presence of these adaptations may in turn foster the development of an adaptive curriculum culture, where stakeholders are encouraged to experiment with new strategies that may strengthen teachers’ implementation and differentiation of the curriculum. Finally, while our data suggest the importance of adaptive leadership behaviors in these districts, the districts—and the leaders in them—of course vary along many dimensions that might also explain differences in outcomes. Challenges. It needs the … Challenges in Curriculum Implementation Curriculum is a political agreement; it outlines the government’s national agenda (IBE, 2013). Not sure what college you want to attend yet? It often helps to consult with learning specialists or guidance counselors to find out what adjustments you might make. In years 2018–2019, the research team undertook an embedded multiple case study (Yin, 2017) in four districts, one district in four of the Center’s partner states—California, Massachusetts, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. The purpose of the embedded multiple case study was to gain an in-depth understanding of the challenges and innovations related to standards implementation from the perspective of school-based professionals as they pertained to our Center’s key focus areas. Curriculum culture would more specifically include the beliefs, assumptions, and artifacts associated with curriculum implementation. Adaptive challenges have four key features: They (a) highlight a gap between espoused values and actual behaviors, (b) demonstrate competing commitments, (c) call for speaking the unspeakable, and (d) tackle issues of work avoidance (Heifetz et al., 2009).1 These are not challenges that can be solved with technical strategies (e.g., creating and executing a project management plan)—instead, adaptive challenges require leaders working with, and learning from, various stakeholders to iteratively develop fundamental changes to the status quo (Carter et al., 2020). Once these external materials were adopted, district leaders worked with their principals to offer PD workshops to expose teachers to the elements of their new curricula; this was a major element of each district’s implementation strategy. We then provide an overview of how these challenges reflect adaptive issues that warrant adaptive approaches to leadership. The content is solely the responsibility of the author and does not necessarily represent the official views of the Institute of Education Sciences or the U.S. Department of Education. It is scripted. It is therefore common for leaders to make curricular decisions that appear to be conflicting as they navigate these various pressures (Coburn et al., 2016). One reason for this is the nested layers of leadership in this district. It is a policy and technical agreement with the people as it consists of the expectations of the society (IBE, 2013). We used a matrix format to organize district, principal, coach, and teacher perceptions of curriculum implementation across the four features (see Miles et al., 2014). CHALLENGES TO CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION: REDUCING THE GAP BETWEEN THE ASPIRED AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION THROUGH CHANGE MANAGEMENT NG SOO BOON, PHD CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT DIVISION [email protected]-between-the-aspired-and-its-implementation-through-change-management Abstract The development of school curriculum in many countries is still very centralized. Contradictory expectations between prescriptive and constructivist curriculum implementation were also prevalent in Palisades. In contrast, the new curriculum was quite prescriptive, emphasizing direct instruction more so than student engagement. Another teacher in Orrington also stated that because “this generation of kids” is more prone to “ADHD [attention deficit hyperactivity disorder],” with a lot more “that are a little bit on the spectrum,” they are “not ready” for the rigors of their curriculum. However, these school-based leadership interventions may only be Band-Aids to systemic challenges with curriculum implementation if they are not implemented district-wide. A research team of graduate students, which achieved at least 80% interrater reliability after coding transcripts together in at least five sessions, coded the data using a standard code list developed in the first 2 years of the study. What Can You Do With a PhD in Clinical Psychology? especially kids who are below level.” While it was important for district and school leaders to make these technical resources available to teachers, those who believed the curricula surpassed their students’ ability levels dismissed the resources as ineffective. When families understand the curriculum, they are better positioned to support their children at home. In the first year of implementation, which was called a “learning year” (principal interview, Cahill), district leaders, principals, and these new coaches worked with their teachers on building their technical understanding of the adopted curricula. Table 3 Curricular Implementation Across Case Study Districts. As at least three principals noted, when the new curricula were first introduced, teachers felt “forced” to implement curricula that they were not comfortable with but changed their mindsets when they saw how the district’s instructional department adapted to provide the support that teachers needed (principal interview, Cahill). View or download all the content the society has access to. Often called instructional leadership, this role asserts educational leaders’ influence over teaching and learning (Boyce & Bowers, 2018). Orrington leaders’ nascent efforts to learn from these co-teachers about relying less on technical interventions and more on their experimentation and reflections demonstrates an adaptive mindset. Atoll Education Centre in relation to learning resources, professional development workload of teachers and support from management. Deep learning takes time and requires very different instructional strategies to those employed for surface understanding. You will also want to consider the accommodations and modifications your students need, and document these changes for future reference. In Maple Town, Orrington, and Palisades, the PD provided by the curriculum publishers was primarily leveraged to support teachers’ enactment of the new materials. General education teachers also frequently described randomly “Googling resources” (teacher interview, Cahill) for differentiated worksheets or “mak[ing] it up as we go along” (teacher interview, Palisades) because they lack the time or guidance to do otherwise. It needs the support of both the The email address and/or password entered does not match our records, please check and try again. Throughout these processes, there is learning-focused communication through a feedback loop between leaders and their stakeholders, frequent opportunities for PD focused on improving pedagogy, and site-based support to facilitate on-the-ground adaptations (Carter et al., 2020). Curriculum implementation-related challenges included inadequate weight given to CSE when integrated into other subjects, insufficient adaptation of the curriculum to local contexts, and limited stakeholder participation in curriculum development. And yesterday they went down. Because adaptive processes necessitate ongoing learning and reflection, educational leaders should embed multiple, curriculum-focused learning opportunities throughout the implementation process, rather than accepting the conventional practice of allocating fewer than 4 days of curriculum-focused coaching and PD (Kaufman et al., 2019) We therefore integrate findings from this study with prior conceptualizations of adaptive leadership behaviors (Carter et al., 2020; Heifetz et al., 2009; Wolfe, 2015) into a set of recommendations that focus on this ongoing learning, and that address the four curricular challenges described (see Table 5). . Many scholars agree that high-quality curriculum materials aligned to the standards can help translate standards to practice (Polikoff, 2015, Smith & O’Day, 1991) by focusing teacher practice on standards-based content and strategies. This study focuses on those teachers who are teaching in key stage one of Lh. The districts within each state were purposefully chosen from a random sample of districts identified for a parallel survey study conducted by the Center (see c-sail.org). District selection criteria for our case study included (a) one rural district, two suburban districts, and one urban district; (b) a balance of affluent and economically disadvantaged districts; (c) relatively high populations of SWDs and ELs compared to other districts in the state; and (d) active engagement in reforming their curricula to align with recently revised state standards. . Her research includes policy implementation, educational leadership, school improvement, and leadership for critical social change. We also showcased some of the adaptive leadership interventions found in two districts, where leaders worked with their instructional coaches and teachers to learn how to better support teachers’ enactment of the written and intended curriculum for all learners. Interview data from two co-teaching teams in Orrington suggest how they have been able to improve their design and execution of their differentiation strategies over time, as their principals have allowed them to work as a team for at least 3 years. Successful curriculum implementation is marked by a process of dynamic interactions between teachers’ interpretations of their resources, the standards, student needs, and contextual constraints (Remillard, 2005). The time we take for teaching math is time when we are not teaching reading, and vice versa. We conclude with a set of insights and implications for educational leaders approaching curriculum implementation in both technical and adaptive ways. Mr. Simpson takes care to try to end units before vacations as well. Each of our districts chose to adopt externally developed math and ELA curricular programs, where many implementation decisions aligned with the technical approach of solving a problem by using existing resources and procedures. Project Gutenberg is one of the largest sources for free books on the web, with over 30,000 downloadable free books available in a wide variety of formats. To tackle these challenges adaptively, educational leaders need to surface some of the root causes behind educators’ mindsets around student ability levels and differentiation; invite conversation around the “nondiscussables” such as implicit biases; collaborate with their educators on designing new systems, structures, and beliefs that better support rigorous and differentiated instruction; and stay focused on this adaptive learning instead of turning the work over to technical programs. These causes may be attributed to technical mindsets about the medical model of disability, where learning differences are seen as deficiencies that can be “fixed” with clinical interventions (Baglieri et al., 2011). - Definition, Doctrine & Effect, What is Medical Indigency? Project Gutenberg is the oldest (and quite possibly the largest) library on the web, with literally hundreds of thousands free books available for Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. As he begins to implement his curriculum, he sees that some students will require modifications, or altered goals that are either more or less advanced than those of their average peers. District names have been anonymized, and the pseudonym chosen for each district matches the state name, for ease of interpretation. Challenges Of Curriculum Implementation In Kenya sources for free books on the web, with over 30,000 downloadable free books available in a wide variety of formats. Using this matrix, we analyzed patterns within and across each adaptive domain. The major barriers to effective curriculum implementation were human, physical, material and financial resources. When leaders adopted new curricula to encourage shifts in ELA and math instruction, those that primarily relied on technical resources (e.g., materials, curriculum publishers’ PD) contributed to two adaptive challenges: (a) limited opportunities to build teachers’ capacity to identify and bridge gaps between the standards and curriculum themselves and (b) teachers struggling to negotiate the competing messaging of previous and current curricular reform efforts. This context has understandably contributed to teachers’ confusion and decreased sense of efficacy as they face new curricular materials. Create an account to start this course today. The adaptive leadership challenge in this instance is to determine how to close that gap without it causing too much disruption (Heifetz et al., 2009). Curriculum Implementation Challenges and Strategies in China East China Normal University, PRC Jiaxiong Zhu . of curriculum fidelity to a new phonics program, which created a need to identify barriers preventing full curriculum implementation. The majority of the educational leaders and teachers in this study agreed that their district curriculum was academically rigorous, yet there were also critiques of the curriculum for being perhaps too rigorous and unengaging for their student populations. Neither are we suggesting that these are the only challenges and interventions relevant to educational leaders implementing new written curriculum, nor are we positing that these adaptive features and strategies apply across all leadership contexts. Some of these reflections were couched in problematic mindsets about student ability levels and what they counted as culturally relevant and engaging instruction, with little to no acknowledgement of the role that teachers, not curricular resources, play in adapting the curriculum so that it is accessible, engaging, and relevant (Remillard, 2005). While there were teachers across all districts who appreciated the rigor of the provided curriculum for exposing them to the demands of the standards, there were also teachers who expressed that their students did not have the “prerequisite skills, prior knowledge, or background experience to keep up with the pacing” in the curricula (teacher interview, Orrington). One of the most challenging issues raised as a result of this technical approach was the unintended consequence of teachers not learning how to critically analyze gaps between the written curriculum and espoused values of the intended curriculum, and to effectively supplement these gaps themselves. One element that these co-teachers have deemed to be important, which their principals and districts were learning to prioritize, is the development of collaborative relationships. The goals of our case study analysis were to disentangle the adaptive elements of curricular problems of practice that educational leaders typically approach from a mostly technical perspective, and to highlight some promising adaptive curriculum leadership strategies. All rights reserved. District and school leaders are faced with the task of adopting or developing curriculum materials, and then supporting teachers’ implementation of these materials through learning, coaching, and supervision (Bryk et al., 2010; Pak & Desimone, 2019). The problem of effective apportioning of responsibility has posed a serious challenge to the implementation of school curriculum. However, they can be found in Hefeitz et al. The birth of the Common Core State Standards, adopted by over 40 states, offered the opportunity for the development of high-quality materials that could be shared among states in a nearly national market (Harris, 2012; Porter et al., 2015). Several teachers in a focus group in Orrington similarly expressed that the “downside of having the programs” is not really having to “look at standards” and ask “what does this standard mean? Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. Ineffective training. The intervention represents the adaptations to organizational behaviors, norms, or practices based on these interpretations, where stakeholders collaborate with the leaders in taking ownership over these actions, and where leaders maintain a steady focus on prioritizing these adaptations until the original challenge is alleviated (Heifetz et al., 2009). Online Library Challenges Of Curriculum Implementation In Kenyayou are now. . - Definition & Policy, What is Indigent Defense? Several leaders and teachers speculated that their district’s decision to provide new standards-aligned curriculum before teachers developed a strong pedagogical foundation for standards-based instruction handicapped teachers’ development to analyze gaps between the curriculum and the standards. Culture is the shared pattern of espoused beliefs, underlying assumptions, and artifacts found across an organization (Schein, 2010), and it dictates the ways in which individuals behave with regard to reform initiatives. Educational leaders facilitating curricular reform efforts have to strategically identify what needs to change, how it should change, and the process for change, including how stakeholder expertise is leveraged throughout all three stages of reform (DeMatthews, 2014). To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. courses that prepare you to earn Yet this transition generated a new set of leadership challenges. Because of the time, skill, and attention it takes to differentiate effectively, many leaders and general education teachers described resorting to the intervention programs such as Lexia, iReady, or Corrective Reading as their differentiation strategies, despite the fact that these programs do not differentiate the general education curriculum. Once the problems are appropriately diagnosed, the interpretation phase involves positing various hypotheses that may explain trends in the observations. Moving from “surface” to “deep” to “transfer” is very demanding. Second, co-teaching teams shared how they learned to flexibly adapt the district’s guidelines for curriculum implementation if they “think there are changes that need to be made to what we’ve done in the past or what decisions have been made in the past,” and then document these learnings “every year as a teacher team” (teacher interview, Orrington) to benefit both themselves and others in the future. Read PDF Challenges Of Curriculum Implementation In KenyaCurriculum The KICD report indicated that key among the challenges facing CBC implementation was the issue of teaching and learning resources. 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This principal noted that teachers, rather than striking a balance between the two approaches, followed the prescriptiveness with high fidelity, leading to the omission of student engagement strategies developed in prior years (reflected in lower classroom observation scores). first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. We focus on educational leaders (e.g., district administrators, principals) as they are among those who can strategically mobilize people, resources, policies, and procedures in support of a well-managed vision for instructional change (DeMatthews 2014; Leithwood et al., 2004; Ylimaki, 2012). Let’s take funding which is essential for the successful implementation of a curriculum. . Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below, Katie Pak, Morgan S. Polikoff, Laura M. Desimone, and Erica Saldívar García, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License (. Some of the challenges he and many colleagues face include the following: Time is almost always of the essence in schools. Differentiation is an intricate process, where teachers have to present different content, learning processes, learning products, and learning environments based on individual student goals, levels, and interests (Tomlinson & Moon, 2013). The curriculum challenged teachers to raise the rigor of their instruction. Teacher Implementation of College- and Career-Readiness Standards: Links Among Policy, Instruct... (Un)Commonly Connected: A Social Network Analysis of State Standards Resources for English/Lang... Baglieri, S., Bejoian, L. M., Broderick, A. Many of the barriers to SBR represent adaptive challenges, given that the task of making “major adjustments to the content teachers teach and the rigor by which they teach it is uncharted territory for classroom instructors and for school and district leaders to support” (Supovitz, 2015, p. 8). . Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. While a number of private schools had the resources, there was a near total lack in 1.There is a specific set of adaptive leadership behaviors for addressing these adaptive challenges, which is outside the scope of this article. Unavailability of school facilities 3. What is Curriculum Implementation? credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. These concerns represent adaptive challenges facing educational leaders, who need to help teachers be “creative with the standards” if they feel that their curriculum is not “always exciting or unengaging to the kids” (teacher interview, Palisades) rather than faulting the curriculum for their own unengaging instruction.