watershed management meaning

The actions implemented to modify hydrological functions for these and other goals range from removing invasive species of vegetation and replacing them with native species, the planting of specific plant species along designed riparian buffers to slow runoff and encourage water residence time and infiltration, to encouraging the use of green infrastructure to allow natural groundwater recharge through areas that would have traditionally been covered by impervious surfaces. According to the Global Water Partnership [1], the water resources are under increasing pressure due to the demographic pressure and improved standard of living. Watershed management programs have usually paid attention to on-site interventions and their benefits. Water harvesting and water management, Major – Covered > 10,000 ha of catchments command area (CCA). A shared vision is a preamble to bottom-up management like that shown in the Matarraña catchment in Spain [19]. Watershed is thus the land and water area, which contributes runoff to a common point. The practitioners working in this realm are involved in an interdisciplinary endeavor, working collaboratively to study not only the storage and movement of water, but all of the interrelated systems that are dependent on water. Water development and management should be based on a participatory approach, involving users, planners, and policy-makers at all levels. Watershed management is a primary and essential component of environmental planning, which is usually focused on the built environment. There is hardly any evidence that can prove that the improved conditions in the wider watershed result as a consequence of micro-level activities and institutions at upstream level or even that the activities were optimal or cost-effective ways to improve conditions in the watershed. Various authors agree to place the birth of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) in 1992 with the Dublin world conference and the World Summit in Rio [1, 8–10]. Even the Constitution of Bhutan mentions about, Sally L. Letsinger, ... Erin K. Hiatt, in, Modeling for integrated water resources management in the Mediterranean region, Water Resources in the Mediterranean Region. [2] and shown here in Fig. Therefore investment in upstream cannot be justified by their on-site benefits alone and can only pass economic reasoning when downstream benefits are embodied. Though a watershed can be defined at different levels, Indian practice reveals that the micro watershed has usually been the chosen scale of implementation for watershed management. (b) Analysis of the cause of the problem and its effect. Module I: Key features of sustainable watersheds, V. Ratna Reddy, ... Chiranjeevi Tallapragada, in, Integrated Approaches to Sustainable Watershed Management in Xeric Environments. (iii) National Watershed Development Programme for Rainfed Agriculture (NWDPRA): Objectives: To conserve and utilize rain water from both arable and non arable lands on watershed basis. (c) Furrow/Ridges and Furrow ridge method of cultivation across the slope. This would involve working simultaneously to promote watershed governance capacity both within and between micro watersheds. All lands on earth are part of one watershed or other. Put simply, a Watershed Management Plan (WMP) identifies water quality problems in your watershed, proposes solutions, and creates a strategy for putting those solutions in action. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Disclaimer 9. James, ... Grant Milne, in Current Directions in Water Scarcity Research, 2019. Watershed is defined as a geo-hydrological unit draining to a common point by a system of drains. The difficulty of managing watershed interventions at diverse scales so as to achieve the larger-scale objectives of downstream impacts is further complicated because of participatory approaches, which basically give the option of interventions to the communities rather than to the planners. Pollution can be aggravated by those extremes. Several countries have already entered an era of water shortage [3] or can be classified as water scarce or water stressed [2, 4–6]. Under watershed management task the water management is one of the very important components. The various measures adopted under soil and water harvesting is: (b) Building of contour bunds along contours for erosion. (i) Vegetative measures/Agronomical measures: (ii) Engineering measures/Structural practices: (i) Establishment of permanent grass and vegetation, (j) Providing vegetative and stone barriers. Climate change is progressively modifying both plant water demand and the water available from rainfall. Audience for the Quick Guide The Quick Guide is intended for novice as well as experienced practitioners working on watershed-related issues at the federal, state, tribal, and local levels. Women play a central part in the provision, management, and safeguarding of water. Watershed Management. Because of these multidisciplinary concerns, the development of watershed-management strategies can involve complex scientific and public policy issues. WSM in its modern or comprehensive form is relatively of recent origin in Bhutan, though it is part of a number of legislations since 1974 (National Forest Policy). Watershed management approaches are evolving throughout the country and are being used to solve tough problems. It involves management of land surface and vegetation so as to conserve the soil and water for immediate and long term benefits to the farmers, community and society as a whole. However, they also remark that it requires careful institutional organization upfront to coordinate research agencies at various levels and to factor in other stakeholders, including farmers and the private sector. What is Watershed Management Planning? Through an understanding of the interrelated processes that combine to govern water and sediment supply in a watershed, it is possible to implement engineering modifications or land-management practices to intentionally alter the hydrological function of a watershed. The Dublin Statement on Water and Sustainable Development set out four guiding principles: Freshwater is a finite and vulnerable resource, essential to sustain life, development, and the environment. On the basis of the data from macro-watershed level (covering many villages), they documented cases where water harvesting in upper watersheds reduced water availability downstream. Content Filtrations 6. In watershed the main source of water is the rainfall; however, the incoming ground water from surrounding areas also shares to some extent. The word “watershed” introduced in 1920 was used for the “water parting boundaries”. Learn more. All environmental, social, and economic concerns are combined to treat watersheds in an integrated manner. Watershed management requires a long-term commitment that is adaptive to changes in population, climate, culture, and resource-use demands. But, this knowledge is extremely important for catchment management measures. Moreover, organizing collective action at the micro-watershed level has generally proved to result in lower costs and in improved use of financial and human resources, particularly for the management of common resources. Watershed planning and management comprise an approach to protecting water quality and quantity that focuses on the whole watershed. Meaning of Watershed Management: The word “watershed” introduced in 1920 was used for the “water parting boundaries”. A watershed is simply the geographic area through which water flows across the land and drains into a common body of water, whether a … Objectives: Area development programme through restoration of ecological balance and optimum utilization of land, water, livestock and human resources to mitigate the effect of drought. All the area under winter crops (mostly maize) and the small area under the summer groundnut crop are irrigated. While, successful watershed projects have overcome the inherent constraints to collective action, they have not overcome two outstanding barriers. In this case, watershed development checks the movements of both surface runoff and groundwater toward downstream. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The WSM Division (WMD) was established under the Department of Forests and Park Services. b. The main objectives of the program include sustaining the flows of natural resources and better stewardship of watersheds providing the country and its people with goods and services in ways that maintain the long-term productive capacity of natural resources without damaging the environment (Tsering, 2011). h. Recharging of ground water to provide regular water supply for consumption and industry as well as irrigation. Watershed management is the study of the relevant characteristics of a watershed aimed at the sustainable distribution of its resources and the process of creating and implementing plans, programs and projects to sustain and enhance watershed functions that affect the plant, animal, and human communities within the watershed boundary. Watershed management was part of many activities and programs implemented by different departments. A watershed, also called a "drainage basin" in North America, is an area in which all water flowing into it goes to a common outlet or body of water, such as the same estuary or reservoir.Watersheds themselves consist of all surface water and include lakes, streams, reservoirs, and wetlands, as well as all groundwater and aquifers. Types of Watershed Management 3. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B012348530400309X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080454054000823, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012409548909117X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128148518000033, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128148518000057, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124095489123899, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128180860000078, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128152751000024, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128148518000021, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444531995000026, Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment, 2005, Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, From Catchment Management to Managing River Basins, Current Directions in Water Scarcity Research, WSM in its modern or comprehensive form is relatively of recent origin in Bhutan, though it is part of a number of legislations since 1974 (National Forest Policy). If the stormwater stayed clean, there would be little concern for water quality. The micro-watershed approach enables amicable integration of land, water, and infrastructure development, particularly because of the homogenous nature of soil, water, and overall physical conditions within the micro watershed. Privacy Policy 8. c. Over exploitation of resources should be minimized. Image Guidelines 5. In the early days of watershed projects, disregarding the optimal social unit resulted in failure of the projects as they could not accomplish effective watershed governance. The pollution is concentrated in rivers, threatening human health and ecosystems. Ü. Mander, in Encyclopedia of Ecology, 2008. Watershed is that land area which drains or contributes runoff to a common outlet. ), Coping With Water Scarcity: An Action Framework for Agriculture and Food Security. For example, in India, hydrologic research cautions that watershed projects may be aggravating precisely the water scarcity they intend to overcome. R. Lenton, in Treatise on Water Science, 2011. The assessment includes land use, rainfall, runoff of streams and rivers, and groundwater. It is an aspect of water cycle management. watershed synonyms, watershed pronunciation, watershed translation, English dictionary definition of watershed. A watershed is an area of land and water bounded by a drainage divide within which the surface runoff collects and flows out of the watershed through a single outlet into a lager river or lake. A.J. This phase takes care of the general health of the watershed and ensures normal functioning. Everyone in the world lives in a watershed. Objectives: Restoring ecological balance in hilly areas and improving socio­economic conditions. Foresight, commitment, and long-term investments have the capacity for substantial benefits. A watershed management plan identifies problems and threats to water resources and develops a framework to address these issues within a specific watershed. Molle [14] qualified IWRM as a nirvana concept, an ideal image of what the world should tend toward, but which is unreachable. Watershed Definition Watershed refers to an area of land where all the water drains to a central point, such as lake, river or stream. Despite their apparent objective of improving natural resource conditions in a watershed, watershed development programs may prove detrimental to downstream areas. A Watershed Management Plan is an important tool for any group looking to improve their local lake, river or stream. Watershed management is a term used to describe the process of implementing land use practices and water management practices to protect and improve the quality of the water and other natural resources within a watershed by managing the use of those land and water resources in a comprehensive manner. There are large variations in rainfall, evapotranspiration, and runoff across dry and wet years that affect inflows into the reservoir, which, in turn, affect canal releases to downstream communities. Attention is paid to agriculture and forest management and production, forage production and pasture management, socio economic conditions to achieve the objectives of watershed management. Read this article to learn about Watershed Management. A good water potential in watershed provides a conducive path for its overall development. Content Guidelines 2. A watershed embraces physical-biological features as well as socio-economic and political features which have to be integrated into the planning and management process. Tomer, in Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment, 2005. Michel Le Page, ... Jalel Aouissi, in Water Resources in the Mediterranean Region, 2020. V. Ratna Reddy, ... Chiranjeevi Tallapragada, in Integrated Approaches to Sustainable Watershed Management in Xeric Environments, 2019. A wide range of quantitative and qualitative methods are available and combine disciplines such as economics, hydrology, hydraulics, environmental sciences, and sociology. In addition, changes in taxation led to significant declines in the income for the Hill Resource Management Society. Hydraulic works may increase the impact of floods, especially the larger ones (e.g., river channeling). IWRM has management instruments which are “tools and methods that enable and help decision-makers to make rational and informed choices between alternative actions” [1]. The origin of watershed management is closely linked to forestry; for example, the uncontrolled The premise of this concept is that many water quality and ecosystem problems are best prioritized, addressed, and solved at the watershed level rather than at the individual waterbody level. Aim of Watershed Management The aim of watershed management is to develop Primary resources of land and water Watershed technology is used in Rainfed areas. Second, operating on the basis of a feasible social unit (a village micro watershed instead of a macro watershed that crosses administrative boundaries) in fact trades one set of problems for another. However, research implies potentially severe trade-offs between these two approaches. From the biophysical context, it is observed that as the size of watershed increases the influence of land use on the upstream-downstream hydrology reduces while the influence of precipitation increases (FAO, 2006). An appreciable amount of precipitation, which is generally lost as surface flow, can be harvested and stored for useful purposes like drinking and providing supplemental irrigation to the crops. Watershed management is also a useful, proactive approach in areas without immediate problems. Often international agencies and scholars, aggressively promoting small-scale rainwater harvesting in catchments, view rainwater as separate from groundwater and surface water (COMMANS, 2005; Stockholm Environment Institute, 2009). This phase deals with overall improvement in the watershed and all land is covered. Watershed is defined as a geohydrological unit draining to a common point by a system of drains.All lands on earth are part of one watershed or other. Plagiarism Prevention 4. Fig. (2003) noticed that successful water harvesting in upper watersheds came at the expense of lower watershed areas. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The factors affecting the water availability and demand are very well illustrated in Ref. Whether these actions were of benefit also to the downstream location or were the best possible approach to minimizing negative externalities was often not ascertained. Those that work in the field of watershed planning and management know that communicating their knowledge and involving stakeholders at every level is as important as the analysis of the scientific issues and solutions.
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