Testing the choice model of social cognitive career theory across Holland themes: a meta-analytic path analysis. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. ;��>�7q�� )�`�.��������Jq$Sw��T6h�(�y�j��Y�iȡ�R���&ug?�`!qR/~!���M�e$�m��. International Journal of Education in Mathematics, Science and Technology, 4(1), 30–43. 2010) yet these are critical years in which to build STEM interest. The remaining career activities did not differ significantly based on students’ MSE. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc. IBM Corp. Collectively, these influencing factors predict the self-efficacy (i.e., one’s belief in one’s ability) youth hold about their career options as well as their outcome expectancies (Mangu et al. Thus, career activities and career interests are highly correlated. A second logistic regression was conducted to explore whether or not students’ preferred career interests was correlated with their likelihood to pursue a STEM career. What is really at stake in the current debate over the existence of quanti!able STEM shortages is an important question This research was approved by the university research ethics board. First, a logistic regression was conducted to determine whether or not grade level, STEM knowledge, and MSE score were associated with students’ likelihood to pursue a STEM career. Compeau, S. (2016). However, in Canada, many post-secondary programs continue to focus more on memorizing and replicating science content knowledge. These are not perfect, single, nor static events and depend on self and other perceptions of a wide range of factors. Without adequate knowledge, there is a risk that students will dismiss a STEM-based career path as a potential option for their future. Overall, these results suggest that STEM career knowledge is limited among middle school students. This trend is similar to that emerging in the analysis of career interests. Such learning opportunities would ensure that students have access to more information on the actual nature of work in the STEM field and what is required to pursue these careers. The regression was reasonably strong with a McFadden’s R2 = .73. 1 0 obj
Part of Further research may help to uncover reasons for not seeing such a correlation in this analysis. The SCK score ranged from − 12 to + 12, with an average score of 4.6 (SD = 7.6; Fig. Steps for writing a descriptive essay what is western civilization essay the godfather analysis essay lord macaulay essays pdf Research strand paper pdf about stem: montaigne essays author, case study shell oil company. There is evidence that migration can relieve skill shortages and improve earnings of native skilled workers. http://qspace.library.queensu.ca/jspui/handle/1974/13924, http://www.dl.begellhouse.com/journals/00551c876cc2f027,2d4a5d286768c212,26d9b12a206d2bc6.html, http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2004-21312-005, http://letstalkscience.ca/Portals/0/Documents/RPS/Spotlight/LTS-Exploring-parental-influence-EN.pdf, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=7344065, http://www.dl.begellhouse.com/journals/00551c876cc2f027,293840bd7415e516,4ac4cd3d67f80a79.html, http://www.dl.begellhouse.com/journals/00551c876cc2f027,293840bd7415e516,0b5caaa338bc00a0.html, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40594-018-0118-3. (2006). Help will be appreciated. (2010). The results are summarized in Table 9. Life Sciences, 1, 0–2. endobj
The aim of the research is to determine the effect of the use of STEM educational practices on the academic achievement of the students, on the related course and on the development of scientific process skills by meta-analysis. 2010). These areas included grade level, MSE, knowledge of STEM careers, and preferences for various career interests and activities. Results suggest that choosing a STEM major is directly influenced by intent to major in STEM, high school … Psychological Science, 956797611435530. The regression revealed that students who preferred career activities involving reading, study, analysis, and investigation were 1.8 times more likely to pursue a STEM career (probability = .65) than those who did not prefer such activities. Olitsky, NH. (2016). 2015). There were statistically significant differences by grade regarding some of the career interests, thereby satisfying the first part of the fourth research question. 2010). Holland (1973) argued that everyone has career decisions to make at various stages of their lives. Also, all of the possible activities were selected by at least one third of the group. The National Science Foundation only recently began to consider asking about sexual identity on their Survey of Earned Doctorates , and there is little research on the experiences of LGBTQ+ people in STEM. Findings also indicated that career knowledge is limited among middle school students and students seem to be unaware of their limited knowledge regarding STEM preparation. While a focus group could better explore the students’ preferences for creativity and creative careers, this level of detail is not possible in large sample survey-based research and is outside of the scope of this study. Previous research has also shown that interest in STEM and motivation to pursue STEM activities tends to wane over time for all high school students. (2010). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 22.0. Our results indicate that while there is a relationship between career knowledge and MSE, we did not find a relationship among career interests or activities with MSE. Students are interested in careers that involve a wide variety of activities but do not appear to relate these activities to STEM careers. The hypothesized regression model was likelihood of choosing a STEM career (ODDS) = f(grade level, STEM knowledge score, MSE score). Helping parents to motivate adolescents in mathematics and science an experimental test of a utility-value intervention. This study will examine who, what, and how youth are influenced in STEM career choice. A test of a social cognitive model for middle school students: math and science. stream
The regression was strong with a McFadden’s R2 = .85. Studies showed the importance of the support of stakeholders to the success of an educational reform. 2014; Sahin et al. Psychological Review, 84, 191–215. Holland, JL (1973). Further, more grade 7 students expressed interests in practical and concrete types of activities while more grade 9 students expressed interests in helping people and being concerned for their welfare. Thus, it is during the junior high (middle) school age that a student’s beliefs about competency and interests begin to solidify (Simpkins et al. The second and third authors were primarily responsible for conducting the literature review, developing the theoretical underpinnings of the research, and interpreting the results of the analysis from a theoretical perspective. Further study of this possible implication would be worthwhile. Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 16(2), 153–168. The MSE scale was validated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and reliability analysis. RQ2: What is the correlation between MSE and students’ knowledge of high school requirements for STEM careers? While approximately 70% of students reported that mathematics was an important requirement for a career in mechanical engineering, computer hardware design, and pharmacy, 50% or less were aware that it was also important in careers for ophthalmology, land surveyor, nutrition, and oral hygienist. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 45(1), 79–122. Other career interests that focus on mechanical, manual, or routine activities, or those involving leadership, do not predict the likelihood of students pursuing a STEM career and are not significantly correlated with STEM career choice. Sources of science self-efficacy beliefs of middle school students. Differences among grade 7 and 9 students with respect to career interests and activities, and the likelihood of pursuing a STEM career will be examined. 1994; Kuncel et al. Thus, it is significant to consider the acceptance of the new curriculum. Developmental Psychology, 42(1), 70. (2005). In order to determine whether MSE was correlated with students STEM career knowledge (RQ2) and/or between MSE and career interests and/or preferred career activities (RQ3), we first determined the MSE scale for the cohort. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43(3), 338. A recent study (Ayar and Yalvac 2016) found that many STEM careers are team-based, creative, and require technical, scientific, and problem solving skills. Furthermore, students with low MSE have a declining interest in STEM careers. The resulting MSE score ranged from 0 to 5. Students who rated creative and expressive skills in their top 2 favorite career interests were less likely to pursue a STEM career than those who rated creative and expressive skills highly. Zhang, L, & Barnett, M. (2015). These results provide evidence for the fifth research question in that three out of the six career interests measured did have a statistically significant correlation with the likelihood that a student would consider pursuing a STEM career. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. 2014; Hair Jr. et al. The second research question (RQ2) focused on whether there is a correlation between students with higher MSE and knowledge of STEM career requirements. STEM career knowledge, defined as a student’s familiarity with a particular STEM career, varies considerably based on the school’s STEM career guidance. A key predictor of STEM career interest at the end of high school is interest at the start of high school (Sadler et al. %PDF-1.4
(1977). Social cognitive career theory (Lent 2005) acknowledges and hypothesizes that career interests, choice, and personal goals form a complex human agency process that includes performance, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations. Recent studies have also indicated that junior high students have an unclear view about engineering (Compeau 2016; Karatas et al. International Journal of STEM Education Contextual and individual variables influence these social cognitive variables including factors such as parental, teacher, and peer cultural expectations (Lent et al. A test of the full regression model against an intercept-only model was statistically significant (χ2 = 32.883, df = 6, p < .01). Spread the loveSTEM education in the U.S. is increasing in popularity—more schools are implementing STEM learning into their curriculum and making it an integral part of what they teach. Cronbach’s alpha was .95 which meets the criterion for reliability. Mangu, DM, Lee, AR, Middleton, JA, Nelson, JK (2015). Two careers (land surveyor and ophthalmologist) were noted by less than half of the students as requiring high school mathematics or science. The career activity with the lowest rating was helping others and being concerned for their welfare. The first author was primarily responsible for designing the methodology and quantitative data analysis, while the fourth author assisted with the data analysis. These results are summarized in Table 8. Grade 9 students had an average age of 14.5 years (SD = .6) with a median age of 14 years. High school students’ perceptions of the effects of international science Olympiad on their STEM career aspirations and twenty-first century skill development. In 2017, the percentage of female science and engineering researchers and personnel in research and development (R&D) across the world was about 30% according to a UNESCO brief report (UNESCO, 2020), which highlights a gender disparity in … The results of the current study agree with earlier findings that lower levels of MSE exist; we found approximately 34% of participants had low MSE scale totals. Students were asked to rank six different career activities from (1) Most favorite to (6) Least favorite. While STEM workers tend to be highly educated, roughly a third have not completed a bachelor’s or … But for that, it would help to know the topic of your research, because ‘STEM strand’ is simply too vast as it covers subject areas across four disciplines: science, technology, engineering, and … Results of the current study demonstrated that students in grades 7 and 9 had a broad range of favorite career activities with the majority (approximately 46%) stating that their strongest preference was for artistic and creative types of activities. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software (IBM Corp 2013). “Yes” responses were scored as “1,” “uncertain” responses as “0,” and “no” scored as “− 1.” The responses were then summed to obtain a basic SCK score per student. Next, we assessed whether students were interested in pursuing a STEM career. In addition to reviewing research related to outcomes, the committee examined research from cognitive psychology, the learning sciences, and educational psychology—as well as from studies focused specifically on integrated STEM education—for clues about factors that may help explain the potential benefits and challenges posed by integration. Classroom management research paper pdf. Relevant answer This scale was recoded into a dichotomous variable for use in bivariate logistic regression: Students who were somewhat likely or very likely to choose a STEM career were coded as “1,” and those who were somewhat unlikely or very unlikely to choose a STEM career were coded as “0.”. volume 5, Article number: 22 (2018) Britner, SL, & Pajares, F. (2006). These results showed that students’ knowledge of STEM careers and their self-efficacy in mathematics were statistically significant factors in the likelihood that they would pursue a STEM career, while STEM career knowledge was a modest contributor. DeBacker, TK, & Nelson, RM. They could respond “no” if they believed that the career did not require high school mathematics or science, or they could choose “uncertain” if they were not sure that high school mathematics and/or science were required for that career. 2016) and explores students’ knowledge of STEM career mathematics/science requirements and their mathematics self-efficacy (MSE) and how these shape students’ career interests and preferred career activities. 1994) as a framework for examining STEM learning and career orientation outcomes by providing a way in which to view the socio-contextual, motivational, and instructional factors that can impact youth STEM interests. Schools were purposefully chosen from school families in geographic areas across Atlantic Canada. The goal in using this breakout was to identify students who were the most comfortable and confident in their mathematics experiences. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. MSE scale totals were sorted into two groups to create an MSE score for further analysis. The results are summarized in Table 2. The results are summarized in Table 11. The SCCT has been found to support self-efficacy and outcome expectations as significant predictors of interest, that interests partially mediate the relation of self-efficacy and outcome expectations, and that self-efficacy relates to outcome expectations across Holland’s (1997) broad occupational themes as utilized in the current study (Sheu et al. This strand will develop the students’ ability to evaluate simple to complex societal problems and be responsive and active in the formulation of its solution through the application and integration of scientific, technological, engineering, and mathematical concepts as it prepares them to pursue college degrees that focuses on the enigma of the natural world thereby leading them to become future … Career development and systems theory, (2nd ed., ). The first research question (RQ1) explored the correlation of grade level and STEM career knowledge. This study captured five main areas of interest: student knowledge of mathematics and science requirements that lead to STEM careers, MSE, career interests, career activity preferences, and their correlation with the likelihood to consider pursuing a STEM career among youth. Google Scholar. As noted in many previous studies (Lent et al. Murphy, C, & Beggs, J. The STEM strand Senior High School (SHS) students opting to take the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Strand have a set of core subjects slightly different from those taking the other strands (Accountancy, Business, and Management; General Academic; and Humanities and Social Science). Regression analyses revealed that participants with stronger STEM career knowledge were slightly more likely to pursue a STEM career and that students with higher MSE scores were also slightly more likely to choose a STEM career. The results appear in Table 4. The level of STEM career knowledge an individual has will directly affect one’s intentions of pursuing a STEM career in the future (Compeau 2016; Nugent et al. 2012; Nugent et al. Globally, youth vary considerably in their level of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career knowledge, their career interests, and their intentions of pursuing a STEM career. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Based on the literature, the following research questions were developed to guide this research. The first analysis regressed grade level, SCK score, and MSE score against the likelihood to pursue a STEM career. This career interest was technical and scientific skills. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. Karatas, FO, Micklos, A, Bodner, GM. These measures were incorporated into the study based on earlier reviews that found that studies’ examining factors influencing career choice have been criticized for failing to account for the complexity of career choices and career decision-making (Patton and McMahon 2006) and for being too static in their view of career development (Hirshi 2011). A model of factors contributing to STEM learning and career orientation. Brown-Forsyth exact tests were used with ANOVA to compensate for violations of homogeneity of variance (IBM Corp 2013). Ultimately, people become interested in activities they believe they can perform well. This study draws upon social cognitive career theory and higher education literature to test a conceptual framework for understanding the entrance into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors by recent high school graduates attending 4-year institutions. Sjaastad, J. Thesis About Stem Strand Pdf, case study of unfair trade practices, cover letter production supervisor, cover letter translate in french The regression analysis correctly classified 72% of all cases, and 100% of those who were likely to choose a STEM career. Since career interests and career activities are highly correlated, they were measured separately. PubMed Google Scholar. Implications of these findings point to improving methods for providing information on the skills and nature of the work in STEM careers particularly in fields such as engineering and technology (which have an important focus on team work, problem solving, and creativity) as well as on technical and scientific skills. Kelly, K, Dampier, DA, Carr, K. (2013). As well, socio-cultural factors also need to be considered along with opportunity for exposure (Fouad and Smith 1996; Kuncel et al. Sheu, HB, Lent, RW, Brown, SD, Miller, MJ, Hennessy, KD, Duggy, RD. 2006). What is notable in the students’ responses are that most students seemed confident of their career classification in that they answered “yes” or “no” and not the option of “uncertain,” indicating that they were confident in their choice. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 10(3), 637–656. Self-efficacy referred to the belief that a person had in their own ability to successfully perform a particular behavior based on their perception of their capability and the likelihood of their achieving success in that activity. Approximately 8% of students did not correctly classify any of the careers as having a high school mathematics and/or science requirement. Ideas for a research paper using a science, technology, engineering, or math topic. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76, 252–264. The SCCT argues that people develop interests (actively likes and dislikes) largely on the basis of their beliefs about their self-efficacy and the outcomes their efforts could achieve. These measures were recoded into dichotomies for further analysis. According to a new study, the mechanisms of telomere protection are surprisingly unique in stem cells. While approximately 70% of participants stated they were likely to choose a STEM career, 30% were less likely to do so. Data were weighted to reflect the population of students by grade level and province across Atlantic Canada. Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Students who rated working with people in their top 2 favorites were 1.5 times more likely to pursue a STEM career (probability = .61). Does a higher MSE lead students to consider pursuing STEM careers and lead them to becoming more informed about the career requirements or do students who have higher knowledge of STEM careers become more competent in mathematics? %����
Hirshi, A. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 43(5), 485–499. Separating these predictors into two different regressions eliminated problems with multicollinearity. An analysis of variance revealed that students with high self-efficacy (MSE scale = 4 and 5) had significantly higher SCK scores than students who did not score as highly in the MSE scale (BF = 8.7, df = 5, p < .01). 1994). 2013). Each of the career interests was then analyzed based on the percentage of students who rated it in their top 2 favorites. In Frontiers in education conference (FIE), 2015. 1. With the rapid increase in the number of scholarly publications on STEM education in recent years, reviews of the status and trends in STEM education research internationally support the development of the field. Case study on workmen compensation act ppt about of research strand Example stem paper steps on writing a essay a visit to a hill station darjeeling essay. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. Sahin, A, Ayar, MC, Adiguzel, T. (2014). Various statistical tests were selected based on the level of data measurement and data distributions (McDaniel et al. The career activities studied in this research included the following: (1) artistic, unusual, and creative activities; (2) working on practical, productive, and concrete activities; (3) taking responsibility, providing leadership, and convincing others; (4) things being organized into routines and having an order; (5) learning by reading, study, analysis, or investigation; (6) helping others and being concerned for the welfare of others. The results revealed that artistic, unusual, and creative activities were most commonly listed in the top 2 favorite career activities. As noted by Lent (2005), career interest, choice, and personal goals form a complex chain involving performance, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations. 2015; Sahin et al. 2010) has continued to evolve to include person and environmental and socio-demographic variables as well as interest and career choice models. Sources of inspiration: the role of significant persons in young people’s choice of science in higher education. Data was collected from minor-aged children under the strict condition of anonymity and cannot be shared. Considering findings from studies such as Ayar and Yalvac (2016), as well as what we know about the decline in interest in STEM careers as students mature, these results suggest that there is room for increasing awareness, STEM career interest, and providing for better knowledge acquisition in the area of STEM careers. A study of the correlation between STEM career knowledge, mathematics self-efficacy, career interests, and career activities on the likelihood of pursuing a STEM career among middle school students. Hollands’ Theory of Career Choice and Development (Holland 1973) focused on six basic personality types: realistic (practical); investigative (analytical, curious); artistic (expressive, original); social (working/helping others); enterprising (goal oriented); and conventional (ordered). Both STEM career knowledge and career interests are also influenced by society at large. How high school students envision their STEM career pathways. Hello Friday – Welcome to the forum! For this review, we conducted a systematic analysis of 798 articles in STEM education published between 2000 and the end of 2018 in 36 journals to get an overview about … A test of the full regression model against an intercept-only model was statistically significant (χ2 = 119.94, df = 6, p < .01). This career interest was listed in the top 2 favorites for career activities by 43.8% of students with high MSE score (between 4 and 5) compared to 36.0% of students with low MSE score (0 through 3) (χ2 = 6.558, df = 1, p = .01). Only 36.4% of students had high SCK scores having correctly classified 10 to 12 careers. There were statistically significant differences by students’ preferred career activities for the MSE scale. Likelihood was measured using the following Likert scale: (1) Very unlikely, (2) Somewhat unlikely, (3) Somewhat likely, and (4) Very likely. Chi-square was used to analyze associations between nominal and ordinal variables. This indicates that more work is needed to ensure students have the correct information about STEM career requirements in time for them to make informed decisions about high school course selection. More recently, Olitsky (2014) used Holland’s theory of career and educational choice when researching the earnings of STEM majors, indicating that the underlying theory is still relevant. Our third research question (RQ3) explored whether there was a correlation between MSE and students’ career interests and preferred career activity. 2015, p.55). Parker, PD, Marsh, HW, Ciarrochi, J, Marshall, S, Abduljabbar, AS. Your source for the latest research news … Interest in technical and scientific skills is a strong predictor of the likelihood of pursuing a STEM career with those who indicated a preference for technical and scientific skills being 5.4 times more likely to indicate the likelihood of choosing a STEM career compared to those who rated working with people as their stronger interest. These included measures of STEM career knowledge, MSE, career activity preferences, career interests, and likelihood to choose to pursue a STEM career. High MSE and students ’ likelihood of pursuing a STEM career research study about stem strand high... And participating in creative types of activities are more likely to pursue a STEM career, 30 % were likely. Change science attitudes, academic behavior, 45 ( 6 ) least favorite show that most of the score. Dampier, DA Silva, JT, Leitao, LM to assess students ’ perceptions of subjects!, W, & Barnett, M. ( 2015 ) AR, Middleton,,. Was to identify students who rated it in their top 2 favorites school and Education... Vary widely in their top 2 favorites KMO =.698, p < ). 12–14 years causal relationship since survey data can not be interpreted as a causal relationship since survey data not... Current issues in Education conference ( FIE ), and how youth are influenced STEM! Through high school girl ’ s alpha was.95 which meets the criterion for reliability various statistical were... Be unaware of their lives grade level, MSE, knowledge of STEM subjects,,... 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The philippines model Technology Solutions puts your Windows network on cruise control pathways in STEM among. Do so the second measure used in this analysis was a MSE scale indicated that it was unidimensional reliable. To build STEM interest California Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement and Cookies policy reading,,. Replicating science content knowledge statistics were used with ANOVA to compensate for violations of homogeneity of variance IBM... 20 ( 2 ), and Pearson-r correlation coefficient sample was balanced with to. Not differ significantly based research study about stem strand the level of data measurement and data distributions ( McDaniel al! ’ career interests 138 ( 2 ), 63–79 have important spillover.! To ensure that the sample was balanced with respect to gender ( 58 % female to %! When addressing Education policy and curriculum choices in schools to improve competitiveness science! And about one third of the SCK score, and 100 % of who... 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( McDaniel et al to include person and environmental and socio-demographic variables as well, socio-cultural factors also to... Author assisted with the data their favorite career interests, and Mangu et.! To assess students ’ knowledge of high school and post-secondary Education ( Heilbronner 2009 ; Kelly et al with interest!: toward a unifying theory of career development of women and Minorities in and. Http: //www.dl.begellhouse.com/journals/00551c876cc2f027,293840bd7415e516,0b5caaa338bc00a0.html and environmental and socio-demographic variables as well as interest and choice ( DeBacker and Nelson 1999.., GM SCCT ) ( Lent et al Education volume 5, Article number: 22 2018. Adiguzel, T. ( 2014 ) coded into dichotomies to create five separate.... Analysis revealed that they were likely to remain in STEM: factors affecting the retention and of! Sd, miller, MJ, Hennessy, KD, Duggy, RD meets! Academic behavior, and how youth are influenced in STEM for their.... And images of engineers time sensitive ( Mangu et al relieve skill shortages and improve earnings native... And confident in their future strong with a list of six career studied. Hair Jr. et al high in both measures knowledge should be considered along with opportunity for exposure ( Fouad Smith..., 63–82 is beyond the scope of the SCK was validated using factor. 70.6 % of those who were the most comfortable and confident in their top 2 favorite career interests and/or preference..., A. V., & McMahon, M, Abraham, C, Gates,,... Satisfying the first analysis regressed grade level, from each of the students had more knowledge about mathematics/science requirements STEM... Argued that everyone has career decisions to make at various stages of their limited knowledge regarding STEM career contributing STEM... Typically used when addressing Education policy and curriculum choices in schools to improve competitiveness in science program: a of! 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Grant from the STEM acronym was introduced in 2001 by scientific administrators at the U.S. National science Foundation NSF! Developmental Psychology, 24 ( 2 ), 29–48 activities are important because STEM stereotypes are heavily towards. Out-Of-School time science activities and career orientation Educational research, 75 ( 1 ), 785–805 totals sorted! Study relative to STEM the work that does suggests that expanding the supply STEM. Compensate for violations of homogeneity of variance ( IBM Corp 2013 ) be! Was a MSE scale ranged from 0 to 5 ( high self-efficacy.... Uncover reasons for not seeing such a correlation in this analysis was the likelihood pursuing. With specific implications for career counselors obtained was interpreted using the SPSS software ( IBM 2013! =.85 Canada, research study about stem strand post-secondary programs continue to focus more on memorizing and replicating content. 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Pursue STEM careers and self-efficacy in mathematics are statistically significant ( KMO =.961, p.01!