Peasants were required to pay the lord one quarter to a half of crop yields, the Muslim pilgrim Ibn Jubayr reported there was also a poll tax of one dinar and five qirat per head and a tax on produce from trees. Saladin's biographer Ali ibn al-Athir wrote after the Frankish castles were starved into submission that "the Muslims acquired everything from as far as Ayla to the furthest districts of Beirut with only the interruption of Tyre and also all the dependencies of Antioch, apart from al-Qusayr". [170] The leaders of the Third Crusade ignored the monarchy. The dhimmi were second-class citizens, obliged to pay a special poll tax, the jizya, but they could practice their religion and maintain their own law courts. Emmanuel Rey's Les colonies franques de Syrie aux XIIme et XIIIme siècles described Frankish settlements in the Levant as colonies in which Poulains, offspring of mixed marriages, adopted local traditions and values instead of those of their Frankish descent. [104] After Nur ad-Din seized Shaizar in 1157, the Nizari remained the last independent Muslim power in Syria. Bohemund the Normanby Merry-Joseph Blondel (Public Domain). [124] Philip, Raymond and Bohemond III of Antioch accompanied by reinforcements from Jerusalem unsuccessfully attacked Hama and Harem. Life in the rural communities, though, continued much as before the Crusaders had arrived. [11] As a borderland of the Muslim world, Syria was an important theater of the jihād, or Islamic holy war, though enthusiasm for pursuing it had faded by the end of the 11th century. Nur ad-Din appointed his Kurdish general Shirkuh to direct the military operations in Egypt. Bohemond was staying at Acre around this time, allegedly because Baldwin IV wanted to secure Bohemond's support for his decisions on the succession. Major field armies were a defensive problem requiring all able-bodied fighting men leaving castles and cities undefended in the case of a defeat, such as the Battle of Hattin. However, Frankish society was not a cultural melting pot. [20][21] Although the Seljuk state effectively worked as far as family ties and personal loyalty overlapped the leaders' personal ambitions, the lavish iqta' grants combined with rivalries between maliks, atabegs and military commanders could lead to disintegration in critical moments. Daimbert and Tancred sought Bohemond's assistance against the Lotharingians, but Bohemond was captured by the Danishmends under Gazi Gümüshtigin while securing Antioch's northern marches. In 1191, Saladin abandoned a three-year occupation of the Templar castle of Bagras and Leo seized it. [65][66] Each crusader state had its own strategic purpose during the first years of its existence. Crusading and the Crusader States explores how the idea of holy war emerged from the troubled society of the eleventh century, and why Jerusalem and the Holy Land were so important to Europeans. The first American crusade historian, Dana Carleton Munro extended this analysis describing the care the Franks took to "win the goodwill of the natives". Riley-Smith divided these into the urban freemen and rural workers tied to the land. On occasions, the atabeg retained power after his ward reached the age of majority or died. This created a separate class the remnants of the old nobility that had a limited understanding of the Latin East. He could not capture the city but extracted an oath of fealty from Mosul's Zengid ruler Izz al-Din Mas'ud in March 1186. [38] These networks developed into autonomous lordships under the rule of a Turkish, Arab or Armenian warlord or town magistrate in the late 11th century. [18][19] The Seljuks adopted and strengthened the traditional iqta' system of the administration of state revenues. [196] Some were planned villages, established to encourage settlers from the West and some were shared with native Christians. 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